Opel Frontera

since 1992 of release

Repair and car operation



Fronter's Opel
+ Opel Frontera brand Cars
+ Current leaving and service
- Engine
   Removal and OHC engine installation
   Removal and DOHC engine installation
   Engine dismantling
   Engine assembly
   Head of cylinders and valves
   Pistons and rods
   Block of cylinders
   Cranked shaft and bearings of a cranked shaft
   Camshaft drive
   Engine mounts
   Compression check
   Greasing system
   Works with system of greasing of the OHC/DOHC engine of 2.0 l
   Works with greasing system on the engine of 2.4 l
   Oil filter
   Oil radiator (if it is established)
   Pressure and oil temperature
+ cooling and heating Systems
+ Power supply system and release
+ engine Electric equipment
+ Coupling
+ Manual box of gear shifting
+ Driveshafts, main transfer
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment
+ Governing bodies and operation
+ electric equipment Schemes



Camshaft drive

GENERAL INFORMATION

At ONS and DOHC engines of 2.0 l the camshaft has the top arrangement and is brought into rotation by a gear belt. However the gear belt for different engines has the different scheme of laying.
The engine of 2.4 l has a chain drive of a camshaft.

ENGINE ОНС TO THE MIDDLE OF 1995. RELEASE


Check of a tension of a gear belt


Check and tension of a gear belt should be carried out on the cold engine. This operation is carried out differently for the engine with a tension roller of a gear belt and without a tension roller.

THE ENGINE WITH THE TENSION ROLLER OF THE GEAR BELT


PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Remove the vyazkostny coupling with the fan and arms according to the description in the corresponding subsection.
2. Remove a driving belt of the generator and the pump of the hydraulic booster of a steering.
3. Remove a guard under the car.
4. Turn out four bolts of fastening of a pulley of a cranked shaft. The pulley is kept from a provorachivaniye by a face key, as is shown in иллюстр.
5. Remove a forward cover of a gear belt.
6. Turn a face key a cranked shaft in the rotation direction so that labels (2) coincided (иллюстр.). Labels (1) on a cogwheel of a camshaft and a level behind a gear belt at the same time should coincide.
7. Check a driving pulley of the pump of cooling liquid. Inflow on the pump should coincide with the corresponding ledge on the block of cylinders, as is shown in иллюстр.
8. Check a tension of a gear belt. A belt will pull normally if the index (2) is in 4 mm more to the left of a label (2) иллюстр. This check operates concerning the belt which was in the use. For a new belt other norm (see below undressed "Replacement of a gear belt") operates.
9. If the tension of a gear belt does not correspond specified above, it is necessary to execute adjustment as it is described in the section "Replacement of a gear belt".

Now the engine can be collected. Bolts of fastening of a pulley tighten the moment of 20 Nanometers. Installation of the vyazkostny coupling, a maple belt is, etc. described in appropriate sections.

THE ENGINE WITHOUT THE TENSION ROLLER OF THE GEAR BELT


For check of a tension of a gear belt these engines have a special tool of Opel firm (No. KM-510-A). If it is not present available, check is carried out by the car owner on the basis of his personal experience. However such tension demands after check in a repair truck.
Check of a tension of a belt is described below in the section "Replacement of a gear belt" for engines without a tension roller.

Replacement of a gear belt


THE ENGINE WITH THE TENSION ROLLER


PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Disconnect a weight cable from the storage battery.
2. Put on a belt with paint marking of the direction of rotation of a belt and remove a belt as it is described in the Head of System of cooling and heating.
3. Put the car in front on supports.
4. Remove a guard under the car.
5. Holding a cranked shaft from a provorachivaniye, as is shown in иллюстр., unscrew bolts of fastening of a damper of krutilny fluctuations. Remove a damper.
6. Disconnect cable fastening from a cover of a gear belt and uncover. The scheme of laying of a gear belt is shown on иллюстр. Establish a belt so that its tense branch was between the lines designated on the drawing by shooters.
7. Turn a face key a cranked shaft in the rotation direction so that labels (2) coincided (иллюстр.). Labels (1) on a cogwheel of a camshaft and a level behind a gear belt at the same time should coincide.
8. Weaken a bolt of fastening of a tension roller and turn the adjusting clown to the right in the arrow direction, as is shown in иллюстр., so that the index (1) rose opposite to the left emphasis.
Now the belt is weakened and can be removed.

Instruction

If the belt is supposed to be used again, it is necessary to exclude possibility of its contact to oil, greasing and an excess. Best of all store a belt on a wall, having hung up on a nail.


9. Check, that the camshaft and a cranked shaft were in the situation shown on иллюстр. Otherwise very slowly turn a shaft (ы). Pistons can rest against valves. As soon as it will be felt, turn the second shaft back.
It is necessary to check also a driving pulley of the pump of cooling liquid as it could turn incorrectly. Inflow on the case of the pump should coincide with the corresponding ledge on the block of cylinders.
10. Put on a gear belt according to иллюстр. point 1 on cogwheels. A branch of 1 belt should be tense. Now it is necessary to pull a belt. The belt is correctly tense, if the index (1) coincides with a label (2), as is shown in иллюстр. Further it is considered cases when the specified coincidence is not present.
11. Weaken a bolt in the center of a tension of a roller and turn the adjusting clown (1) on иллюстр. on the left so that the index (2) adjoined to the right emphasis. Again tighten a bolt of fastening of a roller (25 Nanometers).
12. Turn a cranked shaft precisely on two turns (by means of a face key for a bolt of fastening of a pulley) and check, whether the labels shown on иллюстр coincide.
13. Slightly weaken a bolt of fastening of a tension roller and turn the adjusting clown to the right (clockwise) so that the index (1) and a label (2) lay opposite to each other, as is shown in иллюстр. A bolt again tighten the moment of 25 Nanometers.
14. Again turn a cranked shaft on two complete revolutions and check the provision of labels and the index of the clown.

Other works carry out in return sequence. A damper of krutilny fluctuations fix the moment of 20 Nanometers. Put on maple a belt taking into account the direction of its rotation and pull, as it is described in the Head of System of cooling and heating.
Establish into place all removed parts.

THE ENGINE WITHOUT THE TENSION ROLLER OF THE GEAR BELT


PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Disconnect a weight cable from the storage battery.
2. Remove the vyazkostny coupling with the fan and a fan casing (see the corresponding instructions).
3. Turn out "Torx" bolts of fastening of a pulley of the fan. Remove the fan.
4. Remove the top part of a forward cover of a gear belt.
5. Turn a cranked shaft so that the piston of the first cylinder was in VMT.
6. Unscrew a bolt of fastening of a pulley, as is shown in иллюстр.
7. Remove the lower part of a cover of a gear belt.
8. Weaken three bolts of fastening of the pump of cooling liquid, and wring out the pump aside so that the gear belt weakened and it could be removed.
9. Put on a new gear belt according to иллюстр. At first lay a belt on a wheel of a cranked shaft (1), then on wheels of a camshaft (2) and the pump of cooling liquid (3).
4–
Generator.
10. Now establish a pulley of a cranked shaft.

Adjust a tension of a gear belt. For check of a tension of a gear belt these engines have a special tool of Opel firm (No. KM-510-A). If it is not present available, check is carried out by the car owner on the basis of his personal experience. However it demands after check in the conditions of a repair truck.
Check of a tension of a belt is described below in the section "Replacement of a gear belt" for engines without a tension roller.

Instruction

The tension of the belt which was in the use is checked on the heated-up engine. The tension of a new belt is checked on the cold engine.


Below check of a tension of a belt on the established engine is described.

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Shift the pump of cooling liquid outside, having provided a driving belt a certain freedom, and tighten bolts of fastening of the pump by hand.
2. Establish on a bolt of fastening of a pulley of a cranked shaft a face head and turn a shaft from existing situation at least on a turn quarter to the right.
3a. The device for control of a tension of the belt, shown on иллюстр.
3b. Establish the device how it is shown on иллюстр. (between wheels of the pump of cooling liquid and a camshaft).
4. Slowly release the device lever, knock two-three times on the device and read the instrument. Tool indications for cold and heated-up engines below are provided. It is not necessary to confuse them.
5. If instrument reading does not correspond given above, weaken bolts of fastening of the pump of cooling liquid and turn the pump. Turn outside raises a belt tension, turn inside reduces a tension. Bolts of fastening of the pump again tighten manually (the pump it is impossible to move more).
6. Remove the device and turn a cranked shaft on two complete revolutions to the right. Again check a belt tension in the way described above. If it corresponds to the values given above, tighten bolts of fastening of the pump. Establish to the place of a cover of a gear belt. Fix a plait of cables on a cover.
7. If specified above the device for control of a tension of a belt is not present, the tension is checked manually on a belt branch between wheels of the pump of cooling liquid and a camshaft. For this purpose a tape of a belt try to turn big and index hand fingers. If the belt manages to be turned on on 90 °, the tension is adjusted truly. It is better to draw some a belt, than not to hold on it. Poorly tense belt can jump on wheel teeths. Adjustment of a tension is necessary for executing also on the pump of cooling liquid. Not additional checks will be superfluous. Control check is necessary for executing in a repair truck. Pereskakivaniye of a belt on teeths can lead to heavy damages of the engine and, at least, to expensive repair.

THE OHC ENGINE OF 2.0 L FROM THE MIDDLE OF 1995. RELEASE

The drive of a camshaft corresponds to a drive of engines of a latest model. Control of a tension of a gear belt corresponds above to the described control. Here the gear belt with a tension roller is established, i.e. it is necessary to follow the instructions provided in subsection "The engine with a tension roller of a gear belt" in the Section "Check of a tension of a gear belt" and to instructions on replacement of a gear belt in subsection "The engine with a tension roller of a gear belt"; in the Section "Belt replacement". Laying of a belt is shown on иллюстр. to point 9.

CAMSHAFT EPIPLOONS


Removal and epiploon installation in the camshaft case from a drive of distribution and from a transmission are various. Both epiploons can be replaced without engine removal.

Epiploon replacement from a camshaft drive


PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Disconnect a cable plait and both hoses from a cover of the case of bearings of a camshaft. Now it is possible to remove a gear belt as it is described above. Keep in mind differences in a design of a drive of a camshaft.
2. Establish a wrench on a shestigrannik of a camshaft (it is located on the shaft end, see иллюстр.) also unscrew a cap key a bolt of fastening of a wheel of a camshaft. Remove a wheel from a camshaft.
3. Screw in an epiploon саморез and pull out it flat-nose pliers from a head of cylinders.
4. Plentifully grease with konsistentny greasing external and working surfaces of a new epiploon and press it by means of a pipe, a washer and a bolt of fastening of a pulley against the stop as it is described above.
5. Establish a wheel on a camshaft and screw a fastening bolt. Holding a shaft from a provorachivaniye, tighten a bolt (1) on иллюстр. moment of 45 Nanometers.
6. Establish into place removed parts, including a gear belt. Bolts of fastening of a cover of the case of bearings of a camshaft tighten the moment of 8 Nanometers.

Epiploon replacement from a camshaft

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Remove a gear belt (see the corresponding description).
2. Vypressuyte mount an epiploon, as is shown in иллюстр., from the case of bearings of a camshaft. Watch to damaging the case.
3. Grease with konsistentny greasing a new epiploon and press it. For a press fitting it is possible to use a plate fixed to carving openings.

CAMSHAFT, CASE OF BEARINGS OF THE CAMSHAFT AND COMPONENTS

The camshaft of the OHC engine settles down in the separate case. The considered engine has hydropushers of the valves, gaps supporting by constants in valves. The camshaft, the case of bearings, hydropushers, yokes and epiploons can act in film independently from each other.
The case of bearings of a camshaft acts in film as follows:

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Remove a head of cylinders (The section the Head of cylinders and valves).
2. Unscrew bolts and uncover a fixing plate of a camshaft.
3. Unscrew two bolts and take out a fixing plate of a camshaft (иллюстр.). Now it is possible to take out a camshaft from a head of cylinders. On the party of a drive of a shaft by means of screwed самореза, on the transmission party according to иллюстр.
If the new camshaft is established, it is necessary to replace all yokes.
If the camshaft which was in the use is established, it is necessary to check degree of wear of his necks and cams. Measure by a micrometer internal diameter of bearings and external diameter of necks of a cranked shaft. Define gaps in interface. If they left out of the established limits, the camshaft and/or the case of bearings of a camshaft are replaced.
Establish a camshaft extreme necks in prisms or clamp in the lathe centers, and bring a measuring tip of the indicator to the central neck. Slowly turn a camshaft and to consider the indicator indication. If it makes more than 0.04 mm, the camshaft is subject to replacement.
Establish a camshaft into place by means of a press plate. At the end of a shaft fix the indicator and press its measuring tip to a shaft end face. Move a camshaft forward and back against the stop and measure an axial gap. It should make 0.09 – 0.21 mm. If the gap leaves out of the established limits, it is necessary to replace a press plate or as a last resort a shaft.
Check not planeness of the top and bottom planes of the case of bearings of a camshaft. Besides, the height of the case should have the certain value, allowing to grind the plane in case of their deformation.
4. Insert a camshaft into bearings, having greased necks with graphite greasing. Watch to damaging bearings.
5. Insert a press plate into grooves and tighten bolts of fastening the moment of 8 Nanometers (see иллюстр.).
6. Oil epiploons and carefully press them by means of a pipe from both parties of the case.
7. Establish a head of cylinders as it is described in appropriate section for the OHC engine, considering distinctions in a design depending on a year of release.

HYDROPUSHERS

After removal of a camshaft hydropushers and yokes can be removed or replaced. The specified details can be replaced without camshaft removal. However the special tool is for this purpose necessary for compression of a spring of the valve that will allow to remove press an element and after that remove a pusher.

DOHC ENGINE


The engine has the device of an automatic tension and directing a gear belt. Similar the engine C of 20 NE has devices. Directing a gear belt are executed in the form of rollers. The scheme of laying of a belt is shown on иллюстр.

Removal and installation of cogwheels of a camshaft


PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Disconnect a weight cable from the storage battery.
2. Remove a gear belt as it is described below.
3. Unscrew bolts of fastening of a cover of cables of ignition and расстыкуйте the shtekerny connection, the tool entering into a set.
4. Disconnect 2 hoses from a cover of a head of cylinders and расстыкуйте shtekerny connection of the sensor of provision of a camshaft.
5. Uncover heads of cylinders. Pay attention to existence of sealing rings.
6. Holding a wrench for a shestigrannik a camshaft from a provorachivaniye just as it is shown on иллюстр. for the DOHC engine, unscrew a bolt of fastening of a cogwheel. On this engine the shestigrannik is directly behind a camshaft wheel.
7. Remove wheels of shaft.

Installation of cogwheels is carried out according to иллюстр. The wheel has one opening with marking of "IN" and the second opening with "EN" marking. At installation of wheels keep in mind the following:

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. The pin of a camshaft of inlet valves should enter into an opening of "IN" of a wheel.
2. The pin of a camshaft of final valves should enter into an opening of "EX" of a wheel.
3. Screw a bolt of fastening of a wheel. Holding a camshaft from a provorachivaniye, tighten a bolt the moment of 50 Nanometers. From this situation tighten a bolt on a corner 60 ± 15 °.
4. Turn a camshaft so that both labels shown on иллюстр coincided. A label (2) each wheels combine with a ledge (1) on a cover of the forward bearing.
5. Establish a cover a head of cylinders with sealing rings. Tighten bolts of fastening the moment of 8 Nanometers.
6. Put on a gear belt as it is described below.
7. Other works carry out in sequence, return to removal. In particular, attach a hose of a suction of karterny gases, join shtekerny connections of spark plugs, the sensor of provision of a camshaft, establish a cover of cables of ignition.

Camshaft epiploon

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. The epiploon of a camshaft can be replaced after wheel removal just as it was described above. The new epiploon is established by means of a pipe, a washer of fastening of a wheel (1), as is shown in иллюстр.

Replacement of a gear belt

The scheme of laying of a gear belt is shown on иллюстр. above. For its removal it is necessary to release a face part of the engine.

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Disconnect a weight cable from the storage battery.
2. Put on a belt with paint marking of the direction of rotation of a belt and remove a belt as it is described in the Head of System of cooling and heating.
3. Put the car in front on supports.
4. Remove a guard under the car.
5. Holding a bolt of fastening of a pulley of a cranked shaft as it was shown on иллюстр., unscrew bolts of fastening of a damper of krutilny fluctuations. Remove a damper.
6. Remove directing a cable from a protective cover of a gear belt in a forward part of the engine. The scheme of laying of a belt corresponds иллюстр.
7. The device of a tension of the considered engine similarly to the device of a tension of the OHC engine. At first establish a cranked shaft in situation VMT. By means of a face head turn a cranked shaft in the rotation direction so that the label (1) coincided with the corresponding label in the bottom situation (иллюстр.). Labels on wheels of camshafts and on a level behind a gear belt as it is described above at the same time should coincide.
8. Weaken a bolt of fastening of a tension roller and turn the adjusting clown to the right in the arrow direction, as is shown in иллюстр., so that the index (1) rose opposite to the left emphasis.
Now the belt is weakened and can be removed.

Instruction

If the belt is supposed to be used, it is necessary to exclude possibility of its contact to oil and greasing and an excess. Best of all store a belt on a wall, having hung up but a nail.


9. Check, that the camshaft and a cranked shaft were in the situation shown on иллюстр. Otherwise very slowly turn a shaft (ы). Pistons can rest against valves. As soon as it will be felt, turn the second shaft back. It is necessary to check also a driving wheel of the pump of cooling liquid as it could turn incorrectly. Inflow on the case of the pump should coincide with the corresponding ledge on the block of cylinders.
10. Put on a gear belt according to иллюстр. on cogwheels. The right branch of a belt should be tense.
Now it is necessary to pull a belt. This work can be executed also on the established engine. It is carried out according to the service plan after run of a certain distance in kilometers. For this purpose it is necessary to provide access to the party of a drive of distribution of the engine where there is an adjusting clown.
The tension of a gear belt is carried out similar to a tension of a belt of the OCH engine of 2.0 l with a tension roller.
11. Other works are carried out in sequence, return to removal. The damper of krutilny fluctuations fastens the moment of 20 Nanometers. To Klinova a belt establish taking into account the direction of its rotation and pull, as it is described in the Head of System of cooling and heating for this type of the engine.
12. Establish all removed parts.

Removal and installation of camshafts

Except for some differences removal and installation of camshafts of inlet and final valves is carried out equally.

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Remove a gear belt (see subsection "Removal of a gear belt"). Before removal of camshafts the cranked shaft should be established in the situation shown on an illustration at which the corner between lines makes 60.
2. Remove cogwheels of camshafts (see subsection "Removal and installation of camshafts").
3. Check, that marking of covers of a camshaft was clearly visible. Otherwise mark covers.
4. Weaken for some turns crosswisely bolts of fastening of covers (1 – 1.5 turns) so that covers were free. Remove in the order of a cover and store them as installation. The forward bearing is directing.
5. By means of a rubber sucker take out hydropushers.
6. Check camshafts as it was described for the OHC engine.

Installation of camshafts is carried out as follows:

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Grease with graphite greasing of a neck of camshafts and sliding surfaces of hydropushers. Establish a shaft (ы) in bearings.
2. Grease with hermetic a contact surface of the forward bearing and establish all covers of bearings. Check at once that markings of covers coincided.
3. Tighten bolts of fastening of covers of bearings cross-wise the moment of 8 Nanometers.
4. Establish a new epiploon as it is described above (иллюстр.).
5. Establish cogwheels of camshafts.
6. A face head turn a cranked shaft in the rotation direction so that labels (1), as is shown in иллюстр coincided.
7. Establish a gear belt as it is already described for this engine.

Replacement of a tension roller of a gear belt

The tension roller acts in film (fastening bolts) after removal of a gear belt turn away.

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. At installation of a tension roller it is necessary to pay attention on shown on иллюстр. lock lever (1). The lever should enter in directing the pump (2). The moment of an inhaling of a bolt of fastening makes 25 Nanometers. In summary put on a gear belt as it was described above.

Replacement of a directing roller

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. One of rollers is established on the holder, another on a head of cylinders. For removal of a roller it is necessary to remove a gear belt. Bolts of fastening of a roller it is tightened by the moment of 25 Nanometers.

ENGINE OF 2.4 L (CHAIN DRIVE OF THE CAMSHAFT)

Removal and installation of the case of a drive of a camshaft


These works were described above at the description of removal of a cranked shaft.

Replacement of a driving chain and asterisks


The description of this work is provided above at the description of removal and installation of a cranked shaft of this engine.

Gear wheel of a drive of a shaft of the distributor


The gear wheel settles down on the end of a cranked shaft. Its removal and installation are described at the description of the works connected with a drive of a camshaft. Work is carried out without removal of the case of a drive.

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Remove the fan with the vyazkostny coupling (the separate description).
2. Remove maple a belt (the separate description).
3. Remove a belt pulley.
4. Take out an epiploon from an opening in the drive case as it is described in appropriate section.
5. Uncover the distributor.
6. Turn the engine so that the piston of the first cylinder was in VMT of the moment of ignition. It is possible to define it on a begunka. Begunok should, as is shown in иллюстр., to point to a groove in an edge of the case of the distributor.
7. Remove a gear wheel. Turn a distributor begunok in the direction opposite to rotation. Thus the gear wheel can be removed. It can sometimes jam. Remove it it is possible two hooks bent from a wire in diameter of 3 mm. The ends of a wire are unbent at right angle at distance of 5 mm. Grasp a gear wheel hooks, as is shown in иллюстр.

Installation of a gear wheel is carried out as follows:

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Establish a gear wheel on cranked to a shaft a fillet to a shaft that the begunok occupied the situation shown on иллюстр.
2. Establish an epiploon in the case of a drive of a camshaft as it is described above.
3. Establish on a cranked shaft a pulley and put on maple a belt. Pull a belt (the separate description).
4. Establish the vyazkostny coupling. Previously check situation a begunka.

Removal and camshaft installation

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Remove a head of cylinders according to instructions.
2. Remove yokes of a camshaft and take out hydropushers.
3. Unscrew bolts and remove an assembly cover behind and sideways heads of cylinders.
4. Take out a camshaft from bearings, watching to damaging necks and cams of bearings.

Instruction

At replacement of a camshaft it is necessary to pay attention to the marking which is available on the end of a shaft. On иллюстр. the place of drawing of marking of "U" is shown. Besides, the shaft has color marking. The shaft of the nominal size has сине / brown marking. The Shlifovanny shaft (diameter of necks on 0.1 mm less) has violet marking.



Installation of a camshaft is carried out as follows:

PERFORMANCE ORDER
1. Grease with graphite greasing of a neck and working surfaces of cams and the top party of hydropushers.
2. Insert a camshaft in front into a head of cylinders. Turn a shaft several times and establish covers.
3. Turn a camshaft so that the directing pin occupied the situation shown on иллюстр.
4. Establish into place hydropushers. The pushers which were in the use put on the places.
5. Establish yokes.
6. Establish a head of cylinders according to instructions for this engine.
7. Adjust hydropushers if they acted in film. Adjustment demands attentiveness.
– The piston of the adjustable cylinder establish in VMT.
– Weaken an adjusting nut, as is shown in иллюстр., so that a gap in the valve was not.
– Tighten an adjusting nut so that there was no gap between the valve, a yoke and a pusher.
– From this situation tighten an adjusting nut on one complete revolution.
Adjustment occurs as ignition. Having uncovered the ignition distributor, by situation a begunka (иллюстр.) it is possible to define, what piston is in VMT. The sequence of adjustment can be any. It is necessary only that adjustment was carried out on certain, corresponding to position of the piston and a step, the cylinder.

Instruction

Hydropushers can be adjusted on the working engine.


It is carried out as follows:
8. Warm up the engine to working temperature.
9. Uncover heads of cylinders and a mudguard.
10. Establish a face head, as is shown in иллюстр., on a yoke of the first cylinder also weaken an adjusting nut so that the yoke started to click.
11. Again tighten an adjusting nut so that noise stopped.
12. Tighten the adjusting screw on a quarter of a turn and wait for about 10 with while the engine will not start to work normally. Wrap the adjusting screw on 3 turns.

Replacement of bearings of a camshaft

Located in a head of cylinders of the plug of bearings of a camshaft can be replaced. If plugs are worn-out, they выпрессовываются and are replaced.
This operation is better for carrying out in the conditions of a repair truck since she demands use of special equipment.