since 1992 of release
Repair and car operation
- Opel Frontera brand cars
Identification numbers of the car
Acquisition of spare parts
Technology of service, tool and workplace equipment
Poddomkrachivaniye and towage
Engine start from the auxiliary power supply
Checks of readiness of the car to operation
Automobile himikaliya, oils and greasings
Diagnostics of malfunctions
+ Current leaving and service
+ cooling and heating Systems
+ Power supply system and release
+ engine Electric equipment
+ Manual box of gear shifting
+ Driveshafts, main transfer
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
+ Governing bodies and operation
+ electric equipment Schemes
Technology of service, tool and workplace equipment
Technology of service
There are some techniques of performance of procedures of maintenance and car repairs on which the reader will find references in the text of this management. If to them to follow, it will make work of the house mechanic of more effective, will allow to organize in the best way and qualitatively to execute various technical procedures and is pledge of careful and full implementation of all works.
Nuts, bolts, hairpins and the screws serving for connection among themselves of two or more details are called as fixture. At work with fixture it is necessary to remember some things constantly. Practically in any fixture this or that type of kontryashchy and stopping adaptations is applied. It can be lock washers, lock-nuts, lock tags or a fixing compound for carvings. All used carving fixture should be absolutely pure and direct, with an undisturbed carving and not rounded corners of six-sided heads which the wrench is put on. It is necessary to take for a rule obligatory replacement of the damaged nuts and bolts by the new. Special самоконтрящиеся nuts with nylon or fiber inserts are not subject to a reuse, as at an otdavaniye lose the kontryashchy properties and at assembly always should be replaced with the new.
Prirzhavevshiye bolts and nuts for simplification of unscrewing and in order to avoid damage before an otdavaniye should be processed by special getting structure. Many mechanics prefer to use for this purpose turpentine which it is convenient to put from the special small canister with a long nouse. After wetting of the "become attached" fixture by getting structure before starting its otdavaniye, it is necessary to give to structure within several minutes properly to impregnate the oxidized contact layer. Strongly rusted fixture can be cut down by a chisel, is cut by a hacksaw or removed by means of special гайколома.
When cutting a head of a bolt or a hairpin oblamyvaniya on assembly, the rest of a carving part can be drilled or taken by means of the special tool. The majority of repair trucks can undertake performance of this, also as well as others (for example, restoration of the broken carving in carving openings), repair procedures.
Flat and lock washers at assembly should be established always into place in the same order and the same way, as earlier. The damaged washers always replace with the new. Between a lock washer and a soft metal surface (for example aluminum), thin sheet metal or plastic always it is necessary to establish flat washers.
Sizes of fixture
Marking of a class of durability of bolts
For many reasons manufacturers of cars all wider and more widely apply metric fixture. However, it is important to know a difference between used sometimes standard (called also American, or the SAE standard) and more universal in system of measures metric fixture as, despite external similarity, they are not interchangeable.
All bolts, both standard, and metric are classified on diameter, a step of a carving and length. For example, the standard bolt 1/2-13 of the X-th 1 has an inch floor in diameter, 13 rounds of a carving on one inch and length of 1 inch. Metric bolt М12 – 1.75 of the X-th 25 has diameter of 12 mm, a step of a carving of 1.75 mm (distance between the next rounds) and length of 25 mm. Both bolts are outwardly almost identical, however are not interchangeable.
In addition to the listed signs both metric, and standard bolts can be identified by a way of survey of a head. For a start, the distance between лысками heads of a metric bolt is measured in mm, whereas at the standard – in inches (the same is fair and for nuts). As a result, the standard wrench is not necessary for use with metric fixture, and on the contrary. Besides, on heads of the most part of standard bolts usually there are the radial notches defining the maximum admissible effort of a tightening of a bolt (durability degree). The more the quantity of notches, the is higher admissible effort (on cars bolts with durability degree from 0 to 5 are usually applied). The class of durability of metric bolts is defined by a digital code. Figures of a code are usually cast, as well as for standard, on a bolt head (on cars bolts of classes of durability 8.8, 9.8, and 10.9 are usually applied).
Also on labels of a class of durability standard nuts can be distinguished from the metric. Dot labels are applied to identification of durability of standard nuts, proshtampovyvayemy on one of face surfaces of a nut while marking of metric nuts is made by means of besides figures. Than quantity of points more, or the value of a digital code is higher, the admissible effort of a tightening of a nut is higher.
Marking of a class of durability of standard six-sided nuts
Marking of a class of durability of metric six-sided nuts
End faces of metric hairpins also are marked according to a class of their durability. Large hairpins are marked by a digital code whereas marking is put on smaller in the form of a geometrical figure.
Marking of a class of durability of metric hairpins
It is necessary to notice that the considerable part of fixture, in particular a durability class from 0 to 2, is not marked at all. In this case the only way of difference of standard fixture from metric is measurement of a step of a carving, or a carving sravnivaniye with unequivocally identified.
Standard fixture often call also, contrary to metric, SAE standard fixture, however, it is necessary to remember that under classification of SAE only small fixture gets. The large fixture with not metric carving is fixture of the American standard (USS).
Sizes/marking of a class of durability standard (SAE and USS) bolts
Sizes/marking of a class of durability of metric bolts
As the fixture of the same geometrical size (both standard, and metric) can have various classes of durability, at replacement on the car of bolts, nuts and hairpins it is necessary to pay attention to compliance of a class of durability of established new fixture to a class of durability of the old.
Procedure and order of a tightening of carving connections
The tightening of the most part of carving connections should be made with the efforts defined by requirements of Specifications, given in the beginning of each Chapter of this Management (it is necessary to understand as effort of a tightening of fixture enclosed to it at a tightening a torque). Below the effort of a tightening will be called also as the moment of an inhaling of fixture. The tightening with excessive effort can lead to violation of integrity of fixture whereas the nedotyagivaniye conducts it to unreliability of connection of interfaced components. Bolts, screws and hairpins, depending on a material of which they are made also diameter of a carving part, usually have strictly certain admissible moments of an inhaling, many of which as it was already mentioned above, are provided in Specifications at the beginning of each Chapter. Strictly adhere to the provided recommendations about the moments of an inhaling of fixture applied on the car. For a tightening of the fixture which has not been mentioned in Specifications it is necessary to use the card of the admissible moments of rotation given below. The values given in the table are focused on fixture of classes of durability 2 and 3 (more high-class fixture allows a tightening with big effort), besides, it is meant that the tightening dry (with an ungreased carving) fixture in steel or cast (not aluminum) a detail is made.
Sizes of metric carvings
Sizes of trumpet carvings
Sizes of carvings of the American standard
Any fixture located on a perimeter detail (such as bolts of a head of cylinders, the pallet of a case and various covers), in order to avoid deformation of a detail should be given and be tightened in strictly certain order. The order of a tightening and an otdavaniye of such fixture is given in the corresponding Heads of the Management. If the special order is not stipulated, in order to avoid a curvature of a component it is necessary to adhere described below procedure. At the first stage all bolts or nuts should be tightened by hand. Further, each of them should be in turn held on on one complete revolution, and transition of odes of one bolt/nut to another should be carried out in a diagonal order (cross-wise). Further, having returned to the first to a bolt/nut, it is necessary to repeat procedure in the same order, tightening fixture for a half of turn. Continue to act in the same manner, tightening everyone a bolt/nut this time already on a turn quarter for one approach until all of them will not appear tightened with demanded effort. At a fixture otdavaniye as it is necessary to adhere to the described procedure, but operating upside-down.
Dismantling of components
Dismantling of all components should be carried out in such manner that at assembly each detail could be established on the former place and the correct image. Remember characteristics of appearance, in case of need make landing marking of the details which installation can be into place made ambiguously (to such elements the persistent washer equipped with a flute on a shaft) belongs, for example. The arrangement of the removed details on a pure working surface in that order in what their removal was made will be good idea. Useful there will be also a drawing up of the elementary schematic sketches or step-by-step photography of a component subject to dismantle.
At removal of fixture try to make marking of its initial situation on assembly. Often, immediate installation of fixture and washers on a former place after removal of the corresponding detail allows to avoid confusion at assembly. In the absence of such possibility, all fixture should be put in specially prepared for this purpose broken into sections and respectively marked box, or it is simple on the separate marked boxes. Such line of action appears especially useful at work with the components consisting of a set of fine details, such as the carburetor, the generator, the klapanny mechanism, the dashboard or elements of a decorative upholstery of salon.
At a detachment of electric contacts and sockets it is necessary to pay attention to marking of wires or plaits by means of an insulating tape with the put on it digital or alphabetic code.
Prokladochnye of a surface
On all cars of laying are applied to sealing of a place of a joint of interfaced surfaces of two or more details and serve for prevention of leakages of oils and liquids and maintenance in elevated pressure or depression assembly.
Often such laying before installation becomes covered by a liquid or pastelike sealing compound. Often under the influence of time, temperatures or pressure there is so strong "prikipaniye" of to each other interfaced surfaces that division of details becomes an exigeant task. With many cases dismantle of such assemblies is helped by an obstukivaniye them outside on perimeter of a place of a joint a hammer with soft the brisk. It is possible to use for this purpose as well a usual hammer, striking blows through a wooden or plastic pro-rate. It is not necessary to make an obstukivaniye of cast cases and fragile components. Whether at emergence of such difficulties always first of all check all fixture it is removed.
Avoid application for division of details a screw-driver or mount, entering them between interfaced surfaces as sealing surfaces thus can be easily damaged that further can be at the bottom of emergence of leaks. If a podrychazhivaniye of the "become attached" elements of assembly it is impossible to avoid, use for this purpose the handle from an old smetka, but remember thus that after all the formed chips should be carefully removed from interfaced surfaces and from within assembly.
After division of details their interfaced surfaces should be smoothed carefully out with a soskablivaniye of traces of a material of old laying. The hardened fragments of old laying can be softened previously by means of the converter of a rust or a special chemical composition then are removed from an interfaced surface with a scraper. As a scraper the piece of a copper tube with the flattened-out and pointed end in this case can be used. Use for this purpose of copper tube is recommended, as copper is usually softer than materials applied in the car that reduces risk of damage of an interfaced surface. Some laying easily can be removed by means of a copper brush, however, is not dependent on the applied method, interfaced surfaces should become absolutely pure and smooth. If for any reason the interfaced surface appeared scratched, before assembly of components fill scratch with prokladochny hermetic. In most cases it is necessary to use not stiffening (or semi-stiffening) hermetic.
Councils on removal of hoses
If procedures of routine maintenance include carrying out base adjustments, acquisition of high quality of a stroboscope and the combined tachometer/tool for measurement of duration of the closed condition of contacts of the breaker is required also. In spite of the fact that these tools are a part of the list of special tools, the mention of them here is given in a type of an absolute necessity of their application for carrying out high-quality control of ignition of the engine, being part of procedures of routine maintenance of the car. One more constantly required tool is the electrodrill with the boss on 3/8 inches (to 9.5 mm) with a set of high quality of drills.
If procedures of routine maintenance include carrying out base adjustments, acquisition of high quality of a stroboscope and the combined tachometer/tool for measurement of duration of the closed condition of contacts of the breaker is required also. In spite of the fact that these tools are a part of the list of special tools, the mention of them here is given in a type of an absolute necessity of their application for carrying out high-quality control of ignition of the engine, being part of procedures of routine maintenance of the car.
One more constantly required tool is the electrodrill with the boss on 3/8 inches (to 9.5 mm) with a set of high quality of drills.